Natural language processing: state of the art, current trends and challenges PMC
Together, these technologies enable computers to process human language in the form of text or voice data and to ‘understand’ its full meaning, complete with the speaker or writer’s intent and sentiment. The first objective gives insights of the various important terminologies of NLP and NLG, and can be useful for the readers interested to start their early career in NLP and work relevant to its applications. The second objective of this paper focuses on the history, applications, and recent developments in the field of NLP. The third objective is to discuss datasets, approaches and evaluation metrics used in NLP. The relevant work done in the existing literature with their findings and some of the important applications and projects in NLP are also discussed in the paper. The last two objectives may serve as a literature survey for the readers already working in the NLP and relevant fields, and further can provide motivation to explore the fields mentioned in this paper.
There is still a long way to go until we will have a universal tool that will work equally well with different languages and accomplish various tasks. They are limited to a particular set of questions and topics and the moment. The smartest ones can search for an answer on the internet and reroute you to a corresponding website. However, virtual assistants get more and more data every day, and it is used for training and improvement.
What is natural language processing?
Increasingly major organisations, such as General Motors, are using social media to improve their reputation and product. Social media listening tools, such as Sprout Social, are looking to harness this potential source of customer feedback. 86% of these customers will decide not to make the purchase is they find a significant amount of negative reviews. A BrightLocal survey revealed that 92% of customers read online reviews before making a purchase. By developing a presence in Facebook Messenger brands can communicate in a casual manner with customers. Meanwhile, stationers, Staples use their bot to send customers personalised updates and shipping notifications.
Speeding up claims processing, with the use of natural language processing, helps customer claims to be resolved more quickly. The success of these bots relies heavily on leveraging natural language processing and generation tools. For autonomy to be achieved, AI and sophisticated tools such as natural language processing must be harnessed. Natural language processing, as well as machine learning tools, can make it easier for the social determinants of a patient’s health to be recorded.
Challenges in Natural Language Processing to watch out for
It allows users to search, retrieve, flag, classify, and report on data, mediated to be super sensitive under GDPR quickly and easily. Users also can identify personal data from documents, view feeds on the latest personal data that requires attention and provide reports on the data suggested to be deleted or secured. RAVN’s GDPR Robot is also able to hasten requests for information (Data Subject Access Requests – “DSAR”) in a simple and efficient way, removing the need for a physical approach to these requests which tends to be very labor thorough. Peter Wallqvist, CSO at RAVN Systems commented, “GDPR compliance is of universal paramountcy as it will be exploited by any organization that controls and processes data concerning EU citizens. Event discovery in social media feeds (Benson et al.,2011) , using a graphical model to analyze any social media feeds to determine whether it contains the name of a person or name of a venue, place, time etc.
Output of these individual pipelines is intended to be used as input for a system that obtains event centric knowledge graphs. All modules take standard input, to do some annotation, and produce standard output which in turn becomes the input for the next module pipelines. Their pipelines are built as a data centric architecture so that modules can be adapted and replaced. Furthermore, modular architecture allows for different configurations and for dynamic distribution. NLP combines computational linguistics—rule-based modeling of human language—with statistical, machine learning, and deep learning models.
Finally, we present a discussion on some available datasets, models, and evaluation metrics in NLP. Using these approaches is better as classifier is learned from training data rather than making by hand. The naïve bayes is preferred because of its performance despite its simplicity (Lewis, 1998)  In Text Categorization two types of models have been used (McCallum and Nigam, 1998) . But in first model a document is generated by first choosing a subset of vocabulary and then using the selected words any number of times, at least once irrespective of order. It takes the information of which words are used in a document irrespective of number of words and order. In second model, a document is generated by choosing a set of word occurrences and arranging them in any order.
To find the words which have a unique context and are more informative, noun phrases are considered in the text documents. Named entity recognition (NER) is a technique to recognize and separate the named entities and group them under predefined classes. But in the era of the Internet, where people use slang not the traditional or standard English which cannot be processed by standard natural language processing tools. Ritter (2011)  proposed the classification of named entities in tweets because standard NLP tools did not perform well on tweets. They re-built NLP pipeline starting from PoS tagging, then chunking for NER.
There is a system called MITA (Metlife’s Intelligent Text Analyzer) (Glasgow et al. (1998) ) that extracts information from life insurance applications. Ahonen et al. (1998)  suggested a mainstream framework for text mining that uses pragmatic and discourse level analyses of text. This is where training and regularly updating custom models can be helpful, although it oftentimes requires quite a lot of data. Even for humans this sentence alone is difficult to interpret without the context of surrounding text.
- Ambiguity is one of the major problems of natural language which occurs when one sentence can lead to different interpretations.
- It stores the history, structures the content that is potentially relevant and deploys a representation of what it knows.
- When they asked students to rate the feedback generated by LLMs and teachers, the math teachers were always rated higher.
Natural language processing (NLP) can help in extracting and synthesizing information from an array of text sources, including user manuals, news reports, and more. Natural language processing enables better search results whenever you are shopping online. This post highlights several daily uses of NLP and five unique instances of how technology is transforming enterprises.
Pragmatic level focuses on the knowledge or content that comes from the outside the content of the document. Real-world knowledge is used to understand what is being talked about in the text. By analyzing the context, meaningful representation of the text is derived.
Marriott, the international hotel chain, uses a Facebook Messenger chatbot to let customers alter reservations or redeem points. This process is optimised further if Messenger has access to the destination address. Facebook Messenger bot is increasingly being used by businesses as a way of connecting with customers.
Major Challenges of Using Natural Language Processing
With NLP analysts can sift through massive amounts of free text to find relevant information. Syntax and semantic analysis are two main techniques used with natural language processing. NCATS will share with the participants an open repository containing abstracts derived from published scientific research articles and knowledge assertions between concepts within these abstracts. The participants will use this data repository to design and train their NLP systems to generate knowledge assertions from the text of abstracts and other short biomedical publication formats. Other open biomedical data sources may be used to supplement this training data at the participants’ discretion. However, open medical data on its own is not enough to deliver its full potential for public health.
The challenge will spur the creation of innovative strategies in NLP by allowing participants across academia and the private sector to participate in teams or in an individual capacity. Prizes will be awarded to the top-ranking data science contestants or teams that create NLP systems that accurately capture the information denoted in free text and provide output of this information through knowledge graphs. With an ever-growing number of scientific studies in various subject domains, there is a vast landscape of biomedical information which is not easily accessible in open data repositories to the public. Open scientific data repositories can be incomplete or too vast to be explored to their potential without a consolidated linkage map that relates all scientific discoveries.
If that would be the case then the admins could easily view the personal banking information of customers with is not correct. Advanced practices like artificial neural networks and deep learning allow a multitude of NLP techniques, algorithms, and models to work progressively, much like the human mind does. As they grow and strengthen, we may have solutions to some of these challenges in the near future. Machines relying on semantic feed cannot be trained if the speech and text bits are erroneous. This issue is analogous to the involvement of misused or even misspelled words, which can make the model act up over time. Even though evolved grammar correction tools are good enough to weed out sentence-specific mistakes, the training data needs to be error-free to facilitate accurate development in the first place.
Discriminative methods are more functional and have right estimating posterior probabilities and are based on observations. Srihari  explains the different generative models as one with a resemblance that is used to spot an unknown speaker’s language and would bid the deep knowledge of numerous languages to perform the match. Discriminative methods rely on a less knowledge-intensive approach and using distinction between languages. Whereas generative models can become troublesome when many features are used and discriminative models allow use of more features . Few of the examples of discriminative methods are Logistic regression and conditional random fields (CRFs), generative methods are Naive Bayes classifiers and hidden Markov models (HMMs).
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